combat sports strength and conditioning

Newton's Second Law in MMA (and why Dan Henderson can hit so hard at any weight)

I like physics. Admittedly, like most, my understanding of it gets very convoluted very quickly, but I do enjoy it. To be a successful strength coach and performance trainer, you really need to at least understand the basics, specifically Newton's Laws; they're EVERYWHERE in sports.

This was especially true at UFC Fightnight 68: Dan Henderson vs. Tim Boetsch. So much so, that I decided to make a little video breaking it down.

If you're not a video person, or for the sake of notes: let's use our (written) words and talk a little about what I mean.

Applying the SCIENCE

What should you take away from Newton's Second Law and what it has to do with strength and conditioning?

If you recall, Newton's Second Law is:

Force = Mass (x) Acceleration


or more concisely:

F = MA


For a very long time, strength coaches and trainers in nearly all conventional sports tried to build the biggest, largest, most hypertrophied muscle-bound athletes they could, operating under the idea that manipulating the mass (M) in this equation would deliver more force. They were right in many cases too. If either number in the equation is larger,  you get more force (F). Simple math.

Well, this can present problems for a fighter. One of the biggest problems is that fighters have to weigh-in. A linebacker doesn't have to hit the scale to get access to the field, but a fighter of any combat sport does.  They have specific weight classes and they have to be as strong as possible at that particular weight. How do you make someone strong without putting on (too much) weight? The answer is in the "A."

Acceleration (A) is a tricky one to train. Strength trainers and coaches, in increasing numbers, are beginning to consider it more and more as a vital variable in producing more striking and takedown power in conditioning programs.

It's also the answer as to why a 135lbs man can brutally dish out a knockout punch, and why a guy like Dan Henderson can crank out incredible blows at any weight he fights at (even down 20+ lbs from his "prime years"). 

When Dan Henderson winds up to deliver a straight right, like he famously did to Michael Bisping, he's effectively putting the optimal amount of force into the punch by how effectively he accelerates via his technique. If he committed too much (or too little) of his weight into the punch, he no longer has the optimal striking power; his "M" is reducing his "A"/acceleration. 

Combat sports are a great example of acceleration in athletic performance because both fighters are roughly the same size. Their weight class ensures and defines this, so any talk of a "size advantage" (or Mass advantage) goes away quickly. 

The Takeaway

So there you have the theory as to why we want to manipulate and put a premium on acceleration in strength training. Now, of course, we have to answer the "how do you train for increased acceleration in generating force?"

 That's a topic for a future blog or article (something I think we'll do very soon- how's that for a tease?), but for now I want you to consider something:

4 of the 5 fights on the main card ended in knockouts. The only heavyweight bout ended in a submission victory for Ben Rothwell (go figure!). All other fights were under 155lbs, and two fights were at 135lbs. Two knockouts in a row from men weighing 135lbs certainly isn't just because of size.

Let me know if you guys like breakdowns like this, and I'll do more of them. If not, I'll stick to my long-form posts on programs and techniques, like the How to Build a Better Gas Tank (if you're a Jiu Jitsu or Combat Athlete)

- Mark


PS:  I know some of you will say this is all relative: if each fighter weighs the same, the force (and their tolerance to absorb it) is relative. You're right. However, you are generating much more than your body weight in force if you're properly striking. If I weigh 135 lbs and deliver a punch that only has 135 lbs or less of force, the chances of that punch being a knockout blow are probably pretty low.

How To Increase Your Gas Tank (if you're a Jiu-Jitsu or Combat Athlete)

Photo credit:  Leon Maia

Photo credit: Leon Maia

The number one thing I hear from any jiu jitsu athlete when they're looking for strength and conditioning advice is how to improve their "cardio," or their gas tank. 

In reality, there are any number of factors that affect this (and in order to give you the best answer, I'd need to evaluate you). Any educated answer someone will give you probably will help, but realize it ALL starts with your breathing. There is no silly, exhausting circuit I could put you through, nor rope I could have you swing that will improve your cardio if you can't breathe. 

We all breathe, but we don't all breathe properly or efficiently. Many people will breathe short, "crocodile" breaths through their neck/upper chest, breathe only through their mouth, or worse, aren't breathing until absolutely vital, triggering a panic reflex that many call "the panic breath." This is problematic for many reasons, but chiefly among them is the state you often find yourself in when you're breathing inefficiently is a state of anxiety, panic or "flight."


 A proper breathing practice starts with learning a proper diaphragmatic breath. You can practice this by first trying to inhale and visualize/try to fill your stomach with air. Exhale fully, pushing all air out of your stomach, visualizing and using your Transverse Abdominis and rectus abdominis as the prime movers in your effort (ie: the muscles of the stomach). 

 A progression from here is then trying to breathe through and into your stomach while simultaneously filling your chest with air. When doing so, visualize your rib cage in a true "3D manner," expanding outward from all angles (even through the back) upon inhalation. When exhaling, visualize the same abdominal muscles and be mindful of any additional muscles you may be recruiting. 



Kettlebell Swing

I'm a big fan of the kettlebell swing, because in order to generate the most power, you need a fast, efficient exhalation. The only reason you see sub 150-lbs men and women swing a 32K or higher kettlebell with graceful form, explosive power, and model-like extension and thrust in their hips is because their breath garners so much power. 

You probably know how to kettlebell swing. That's great, keep doing it, but to modify the form and perfect it the way I'm talking about:

  1. Concentrate on exhaling quick and sharply through the mouth, ending in a sharp "hiss" as your hips come to a full extension at the top of the swing. Notice how in the photo above, my mouth is very clearly exhaling, almost like I'm forcefully blowing out a candle. Think of that visual: you're blowing out a candle using the breath you "collected" in your stomach at the top of the swing. 
  2. Get really good at this before continuing to my progression below. Use a lower/moderate weight kettlebell. I recommend a 35 lbs / 16 KG. Once you're efficient at that. Move on to...

Breathing Ladders 

A ladder set can best  be described as an ascending rep scheme that follows a pattern. For example, and for our use, we're counting up to 15 reps, starting with 1 rep on the first set, 2 reps on the second, 3 on the third, etc. After you've completed set 15, you've completed 120 total repetitions. 

"The Breathing Ladder" protocol is where we put our breath efficiency to the test. Between each set, you may only take the amount of breaths that you performed in each set.  So it looks something like this:

1 swing- place KB down- 1 breath
2 swings- place KB down- 2 breaths
3 swings- place KB down- 3 breaths
Etc. until 15 swings/15 breaths 

The breaths can be at any pace, but you cannot take more breaths than reps you performed that set, and they must be deep, diaphragmatic breaths. I like to place my hands on my stomach, near my obliques, to ensure I'm getting the full three dimensional breath. 


If the kettlebell swing is contraindicated for you or not quite your wheelhouse, you can regress it to the hip bridge. This is a great way (and really the true starting/novice move to learn it on) because you'll be breathing on your back, which many find is the best way to learn breathing diaphragmatically.   The protocol is the same otherwise: use the ladder technique. 

I'll get into further progressions from here in later articles, but all the strength coaches out there can certainly see the endless possibilities you can use with advanced athletes and trainees. 

Lastly, I'll close by saying these workouts, especially the diaphragmatic breaths and hip-bridges, don't seem like grueling workouts. They aren't. They weren't designed to be that way. This is essentially retraining your body to do something it should be doing properly, but somewhere it went awry. You'll begin to notice the benefits of these techniques on the mat, when you gas-out less, and when you hear your opponent breathing heavy and hard, but you're calm and relaxed, despite being the victim of their side control. 

Think of your current lung capacity like a powerful V8 engine. Big engines use lots of gas. If you're not breathing, you're not giving that V8 engine any gas. Cars with no gas are useless.

So do you really need to be flailing ropes around until you're blue in the face if you're not breathing? That's actually probably why you're blue in the face.

- Mark

Note:  Because of the demand and interest, I am developing an online course on this very subject. It's available for pre-order now by clicking here or visiting the DiSalvo Performance Academy.

For another great companion to this workout, I highly recommend Steve Maxwell and I's video on Breath Control Workouts and old Russian breathing techniques. You can grab that here