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How to Deal with Injuries

*Note: The scope of injuries I am discussing in this article are not ones that you’d classify as life threatening or permanently altering. Exercise common sense and always seek emergency medical attention in cases of obvious significant injury or if your health/life is in doubt.      The types of injury I am referring to include, but aren’t limited to orthopedic: ligament/tendon, bone or safely treated skin abrasions and sutures.

*Note: The scope of injuries I am discussing in this article are not ones that you’d classify as life threatening or permanently altering. Exercise common sense and always seek emergency medical attention in cases of obvious significant injury or if your health/life is in doubt.

The types of injury I am referring to include, but aren’t limited to orthopedic: ligament/tendon, bone or safely treated skin abrasions and sutures.

You can do everything right, but if you’re involved in a sport of any kind, you can still get injured.  An ounce of prevention may be worth a pound of cure, and you may be doing more good than you know by your meticulous mobility, nutrition and recovery rituals— however, a freak accident or misstep can lead to some forced time off from the mats (rink, field, etc). When you participate in contact sports, you also must expect that something could happen at any time. 

The tendency for most is to completely shut it down and wait it out. While this is a good approach at first, there is a great deal of value in getting back to a movement ritual you can handle as soon as you’re able. Between potentially helping you heal faster and keeping you mentally and physically sharp, having a plan maintains a goal oriented approach in your life. That keeps your confidence high and goals met. It seems twisted, but there is great value in the injury process, but only for those willing to be diligent in their recovery.

With that said, here’s a few things to consider when you go down for the count…

Don't do ‘nothing’

There is a time for rest and shutting it down. That time is usually the immediate phase right after you get injured and the immediate days that follow. However, rehabbing an injury that’s more significant than a bruise is going to take more than a few days. After those immediate rest days, it’s best to get moving again— just not directly on the injured area. 

The “do nothing” approach is usually where I see things go badly for people: they get depressed, they get angsty and all manner of unpleasant thoughts because they focus so intently on what they can’t do and how different their movement ritual has become.

Whatever you can do, go and do it. This usually should start in the form of getting help.

Get the right diagnosis 


You may find this surprising, but you won't always need the MRI or expensive medical consult. Over the years, I found this out the hard way: hearing stories of clients (and even myself) going to emergency rooms, urgent care clinics and the like, only to find the clinicians being inconclusive or unsure. There is great value in ruling out significant breaks or damage in these settings, but there are many times where a more carefully chosen medical consultant would have been far more beneficial to your sanity, time, and wallet. 

Instead, find a physical therapist with a background in high impact or strength sports, and get them to diagnose you soon after you suffer an injury on the scale we are discussing (refer to the disclaimer above). If you aren't able to get a confident diagnosis from them, they'll refer you out, and that's when you should pursue the MRI's of the world. Again, please use common sense with this: if you are obviously dealing with a severely broken bone, significant head trauma, or anything like that: you should seek immediate medical attention. 

Outside of some really bad injuries, most physical therapists are willing and able to give you confident diagnoses on the basis of what they see and how you're moving. More importantly, they can give you actionable steps that day to help you begin to heal properly. This is why I recommend any injuries in the scope mentioned above be diagnosed and looked at by a physical therapist (if possible) first.

Find your point person. 

For those who are on a training program and keep records of it: you already understand the value of that program to your improvement and progression. Coming out of an injury is no different: you put yourself in the best position by assembling the same plan for your rehab. 

After you know what you’re dealing with: use that PT from above or find a physical therapist, athletic trainer, massage therapist or qualified trainer to be the person to guide you through the journey. Come up with a plan together and mostly importantly, be sure you are clear on what you need to be doing day to day, and week to week. No ambiguities.

This is an important step because it eliminates the potential negatives at both sides of the personality spectrum: for someone who is a bit gun shy about their rehab and return, you may need the input of the point-person to push you in the right direction when you’re feeling unsure. For the “full speed ahead!” type of folks, you will benefit from handing over the reigns to a knowledgeable neutral party so you don’t do too much too soon.

If you can't afford the regular treatments of a professional, try to find room in your budget and time to do whatever you can afford. You will need the regular contact and an objective (i.e. not you) viewpoint to help guide your progression. I feel comfortable saying the money you do spend will be the best you ever spent because it's an investment in you and your expedited return to something you love.  

Push the other non-injured body parts hard

When I tore my MCL in the fall- I hobbled and took an Uber to the gym the next day (forgoing my customary 20 minute walk for obvious reasons). I did the longest, highest volume workout I could come up with on my upper body. I made a plan to bring up my bench press in the weeks that followed, and to work on my arms secondarily for size. Leg workouts and jiu jitsu were obviously out of the question. 

Now you may not share my extremism or desire to be that into it, but I suggest you get to the gym as soon as you can safely move there. Moving and being active in other places while you heal is one way to actually speed up the healing process. Moreover, it can really keep your confidence high.

Set goals you can achieve while injured

It’s easy for time to get away from you in the best of times, but in times of injury, that luxury is no longer in your hands: you’ll heal as fast as your body is able. Instead of waiting around for that to happen, set humble goals that you can achieve in roughly 4 week timeframes. Is your knee injured? Work on a pull-up PR. Is your elbow injured? Work on squatting a weight or # of reps you never thought previously achievable for yourself. Are both sets of limbs injured? I bet you can train yourself to do a 5-minute hollow-body hold! 

For those in jiu jitsu: practice something as small as hand-fighting, or basic mechanics of back control or whatever position doesn’t cause pain. Going through the reps and improving a smaller aspect of your game is a great way to keep your mind sharp and invest in your future skills post-injury.

I think you see where I am going. The value here is that as you keep achieving goals, you stay confident. Confidence breeds a fertile mind for success, and that will make your day to day much nicer.  

The Takeaway


There’s always something you can do when you get injured; so don’t let yourself be pulled too far from your goals in the time it takes to get back to 100%. Injuries are a reflective time, and if you’re prone to negativity, the above steps will help you keep a positive outlook on what otherwise can be a frustrating time.

A parting tip: if you’re reading this and are currently 100% healthy, I recommend bookmarking it for that rainy day— when you get injured, we often aren’t thinking with as sound of mind and having a guide on hand is a good idea.

Three Cues to Excel in the Deadlift

Most people who deadlift do so for the great strength and size-gaining benefits that accompany it. Packed in it though, is a great lesson on how to identify your center of gravity from a hinged or bent position. This has amazing benefits for the jiu jitsu fighter or anyone trying to improve their physical quality of life. Much has been written by masters of this lift, and it is one that has a lifetime's worth of detail and exploration. I consider it to be a real art and it is truly my favorite exercise. What follows are the most common cues and reminders I find myself giving when administering the deadlift.

 

Push the ground away

The most fundamentally misunderstood cue of the deadlift is that you somehow have to actively use your back to rip the bar from the ground and quite literally “pull.” I would absolutely call the deadlift a pulling lift, by virtue of it’s high demand on the posterior chain, but it’s an isometric “pull” from the upper body, with a lower body maximal effort from your posterior chain— effectively making it a “pulling motion.”

 

But a funny thing happens when we re-shift the emphasis a little: whenever I have someone who has difficulty deadlifting at a certain load, I cue them to think of their feet and imagine that on the upward portion (concentric phase) of the lift that they are pushing the ground away with their feet, while keeping the upper body rigid. Suddenly, muscles are properly cued that were underperforming earlier, their shoulders drop, traps pop, and they look like hinging perfection.  

 

It may be a pull, but you aren’t pulling with your upper body...

 

Expanding on the point above, the other massive deadlift miscue I see is that athletes will often look like they are trying to pull the bar off the ground with their back, and not using their legs to help at all until they stall with their back. Now, there is an unfolding and a bit of a pull with the back that does take place, but it must happen in conjunction with the legs “pushing you upwards” (as stated above). Moreover, those two things happening simultaneously must happen in a certain synchronicity to really effectively and expertly execute the deadlift.

RDL’s (Romanian Deadlifts) excluded, this is a huge mistake that could possibly end in injury, but more immediately, won’t do you any favors in truly reaping the benefits of the deadlift. 

Instead, take time to feel your lats, elevate your chest, brace your core, drop your shoulders, and take a few practice hinges holding this posture. This is how your upper body will remain as you deadlift. It is not a passive effort in the upper body, it’s quite active.

 

Sit on your heels

 

There’s so much of life that exists on our toes. Most sports, walking around town, and just about everything requires us to “lean in” a bit. This happens so much, that "leaning in" becomes how we are most comfortable balancing our bodies. Add to that the fact that shoes typically come with a heel (even minimalist sneakers sometimes), and you begin to see why people have trouble really getting in touch with being flat to the ground and sitting into their heels.

The problem with being too far on your toes during the deadlift is that the average deadlifter will be unable to properly cue their gluteus maximus and sit back in a nice deep hinge during the lift.   This “toe stance” has the effect of making you more likely to tilt your pelvis forward/under (posteriorly), and thus, killing a true hinge. The reason this happens is because your body is trying to get "under center" to its strong point at your center of gravity. Long term, I have seen this improper deadlift form sideline lifters for a very long time, as it has the effect of adding up to a lot of unnecessary tightness and damage to the anterior hip muscles. Even though in the moment you may feel stronger or more stable in your “toe stance,” long term it will bottom out and you’ll stall. Besides, it’s not correct anyway! 

So, avoid this at all costs by not getting your ego up or progressing too fast. Take time to practice your perfect hinge position, do support exercises, and be sure that the balance is in your heels. You also should keep the bar extremely close to your shins (almost touching, and it's okay if it does sometimes). That's the true way you keep the bar "under center." You’ll know you’re doing it properly when you can feel your glutes and the rest of your posterior chain.

 

Closing Thoughts

I find these three cues to be the most economical in recommendations, and find myself repeating them the most in the gym. These tips are very much aimed at the new deadlifter, but are very good evaluation and reflection questions an experienced powerlifter can ask themselves as well.  I included a video I often share with clients for quick reminders while deadlifting in the gym (see above). 

 

Be well.

Weight Cut Methods for Same Day Weigh-Ins: Ketosis

Photo credit:  The Doppleganger

Photo credit: The Doppleganger

DISCLAIMER: What follows is research and reflections from my own experience cutting weight personally, and with a limited pool of clients and athletes. Nothing below is intended to count as medical advice, nor does it replace the advice of a physician. Nutrition and health are hugely personal and if you require a medical consultation or wish to try any methods below, consult your physician first. These are NOT recommendations.

Same day weigh-in success is a hugely contested, and a poorly understood topic.  It is a subject that deserves quite a bit of attention though, as the popularity of sports that practice this type of weigh-ins are growing massively in popularity: from jiu jitsu to weightlifting competitions, there is a definite growing need for us to better understand and take the same day weigh-in seriously.

If you're still waiting until 10 days out and proceed to starve yourself and drink distilled water, you're probably doing more harm than good. You can be tough and do it- sure- many have. Why not be tough and smart though? That's the stuff "double-gold" dreams are made of.

The "safe" popular advice is often to stay near your weight, so the "cut" involved is not difficult at all. The other advice you hear is to not cut weight for same-day weigh-ins at all, as there is too much risk involved. In other words: fight "up."

I won't even bury the lede here:

If you're purely looking to engage recreationally in jiu jitsu or any sport that requires same-day weigh-ins and have no interest in optimization or maximizing your potential, then the latter advice is perfectly valid (ie: don't cut weight). If you're perfectly happy with your body composition and are one of the rare individuals who fall right on a weight class at any point during the year: weight cutting may not be for you. Chances are, you may not be used to performance enhancing diets. There's a learning curve and some days of discomfort.

However, if you're training for a tournament or fight of any note, the chances are that you want to win. After all, you put in quite a bit of effort to prepare, train, and even more sacrifice into your diet, sleep schedule, etc. If you're a professional or aspiring professional, you need to optimize your performance. You need to do this with care and a plan.

Chris Weidman making weight before a UFC event. He's famously known for his large weight cuts. Photo:  Peter Gordon , 

Chris Weidman making weight before a UFC event. He's famously known for his large weight cuts. Photo: Peter Gordon

If you fall into this camp, you may be 10 lbs or more away from your target weight class. It's just life: training, diets, stressors in life and lifestyle habits all influence and fluctuate your weight. Even those with the "luxury" (and I use that word VERY lightly) of 24-hour prior weigh-ins will tell you: staying at your fighting weight all year-round is not usually practical.

That's why today, in what will be a series looking at different methods to cut weight for any sport that requires same-day weigh-ins (jiu jitsu, submission wrestling, powerlifting competitors, Olympic style lifting competitors, etc), I want to share with you my research findings, first-hand experience, and experience of athletes and experts using a ketogenic diet as a means to make weight for competition. 

What is Ketosis?

Ketosis is the state the body finds itself in when it's using ketone bodies or fat as its primary source of energy. Most people who are not in ketosis are in a state of glycolysis, where energy is derived from glucose in the blood, or blood sugar. Ketosis, is the opposite. (1)

To get your body into a ketogenic state, you need to consume as little as 30g of carbohydrates per day, and can go as high as 100g in some individuals. To put it in perspective, two slices of Ezekiel bread would put you at 30g roughly, and a single large banana will bring you close as well.  This variation in how many carbohydrates you can consume to start ketosis, in my view, is usually due to the size of the athlete or individual and how much glycogen they have stored (or can store).  Thus, the exact number it takes to get you ketogenic is hard to quantify, but is often very low (my own number was 50g of carbohydrates or less per day, starting at a weight of 157 lbs).

The other limiting factor in ketosis, and this is key for anyone who wants to better understand their carbohydrate intake, is that it can take multiple days to burn through your glycogen stores, even while in a ketogenic state. When beginning a ketogenic diet, it may take up to 5 days to burn off your circulating blood glucose and glycogen stores to the point where the body preferentially (or out of necessity) turns to ketone bodies. 

This is important to point out too for the non-keto crowd, because there is a misconception among athletes that they need to hit "x" amount of carbohydrates per day, no matter what. Even if you're on a ketogenic diet, nothing could be further from the truth. The day's activities, training and sport demands drastically change the body's energy requirements. You'd be surprised how little glycogen you're actually burning off in a single workout (sounds like heresy I know, but I'm speaking from experience). Therefore, a professional or high level athlete should contact a knowledgable individual, nutritionist or dietician to help them work out the nuances of their daily carbohydrate consumption. The truth is, it should change frequently.

Your body isn't a total stranger to ketosis though: depending on your daily level of carbohydrate intake, you likely switch to this state while you sleep. You "snap out of it" once you consume enough carbohydrates the next day. 

Practical Application

My own goal during my most recent cut was to stay under 50g carbohydrate per day. With the exception of re-feed days, I was always under this amount. A true ketogenic diet, much like the one Tim Ferriss shared once, and many describe, is a ratio of approximately 15% Protein from Calories, 80% Fat and 5% carbohydrates from fruit mostly. My own diet was closer to 25% protein, 70% fat and 5% carbohydrates. You can debate the merits of that as truly ketogenic or not. 

Ketosis Friendly Foods: Healthy, fatty salmon and bok choy.

Ketosis Friendly Foods: Healthy, fatty salmon and bok choy.

Regardless, I was completely gluten and grain free during this time as well. I ate no rice or potatoes during the cut, not even on re-feed days. This was a rather extreme version for some, but most ketogenic diets have no room for these foods either.

While on the diet, it's important to understand there is a need for "re-feed" days. This means you have one or two days per week where you go over the maximum carbohydrate intake parameters in an effort to refuel glycogen. Every 3rd or 4th day is a good practice for this. Personally, because I was in a total experimentation mode, and have a penchant for deprivation and pushing my limits, I did not necessarily follow a strict guideline of "3 to 4 days" but rather, would be very mindful of how my body felt and "re-fed" accordingly. Coincidentally enough, this was usually every 3.5 days. So I would say this recommendation holds in my experience. I haven't seen a ketogenic diet that advocates skipping a re-feed day for athletes, even if the scheduling of these days is different (like Dr Mauro Di Pasquale's Anabolic Diet for instance)

Re-feed meals are best done after a particularly glycogen-depleting workout, like heavy weight training, high intensity intervals, short duration, alactic-type workouts or bouts of exercise. This is when you'll feel it (and want it) most, but it's also when your body is most ready to "accept" carbohydrates for the sole purpose of replenishing glycogen.

Benefits

My firsthand experience with a ketogenic diet was largely positive. I did it for 5.5 weeks prior to the IBJJF New York Open at No-Gi to make featherweight. I dropped from 157 lbs to 147lbs, weighing in officially with my gear on at 146.6 lbs. That meant I could eat a small breakfast that morning, drink reasonably to keep my body hydrated and even scored a few handfuls of an omega-3 nut mix before my match.

The real benefit to the ketogenic diet for the athlete is the body being physically and mentally ready to perform with what seems like small amounts of food or even in a relatively fasted state. By the time you're at competition day or fight day, you're used to 5+ weeks of food that is small in portion and dense in fuel-giving calories. You're also very familiar with the body using ketones and fat as energy. Thus, if you're right on weight and don't have much to eat the day of the competition, this probably won't affect your performance nearly as much as the person who lives on a steady stream of blood glucose from a diet that calls for more carbohydrates and lower fat.

Anecdotally speaking: the athletes I've worked with who possess the best endurance are good fat metabolizers, and tend to be some of the best at training in these relatively "deprived" states. The science on this is that they've effectively lowered their insulin resistance and through training and fueling with moderate to high fat diets, have been able to stabilize their blood sugar and have "re-trained" their bodies to begin burning fat and ketones as fuel during exercise. (2)  

Drawbacks

In my experience, though some will report differently, when you come off a short-term ketogenic diet, you tend to gain the weight back that you lost pretty quickly. This may seem like common sense, but upon getting off the diet, I shot up to 155 lbs in roughly 10 days. After eating a large "celebration meal," I was at 152 lbs the next day.

For that reason, I believe it's an effective "athlete's diet," but maybe not so great at making long term body composition change, unless you plan to keep up the lifestyle. There is much debate about how long-term you can keep up a ketogenic diet safely however. There are some dissenters though, like Dr Peter Attia, who claims to have been on one for over 10 years. 

There are also many factors that influence your body's readiness to take on a diet like this. Some people genetically have a polymorphism that makes them inefficient fat metabolizers and could actually do a great deal of harm and suffer from weight gain if they go on a high-fat diet. Dr Rhonda Patrick described this on the Joe Rogan Experience #672 if you'd like to learn more about that.

Things You Should Know

You will get the "low carb flu." After about two days in my experience, you'll start to feel sluggish, cravings will arise and it will be difficult. These can last for as few as two days, and as long as a week (in my experience). There are many reasons for this, some debated, some more accepted:

  • Your body is adjusting to using fat as its primary source of energy.
  • There's a "die off" effect going on internally (note: this effect is best noted and studied with antibiotic administration, not dietary or probiotic changes necessarily, but it's often been hypothesized as a reason for discomfort).

If you're under 8% body fat (and possibly even as high as 10% in males), you may not find this as an effective means to cut weight for competition, as you have very little "useless" weight to lose. You would still likely benefit from adopting many of the principles, as ketogenic diets would arm you to feel more satiated on less food before competition, you'd lower your insulin resistance, and in turn, retain or build more lean muscle. Chances are though, if you're a healthy 6-10% BF male, you likely possess many of these qualities already.

Addressing Misconceptions

Ketogenic Diets will make you "bonk," hurting performance and induce sluggishness.

This is a really loaded assumption because it's true: if you do it wrong.

I did it wrong at first: once my body got past the "low carb flu," I initially neglected to respect the power of the "re-feed" days in fear that it would "retain too much water" for me to make weight. In my final 2.5 weeks of prep, I adjusted this notion and never looked back. Do it right and you'll never feel sluggish.

You will lose muscle and lean tissue as your body needs it for fuel.

I have never found this to be true in my experience at all. The body, through gluconeogenesis, is able to metabolize protein and lean tissue for fuel, but this just does not seem to happen in a significant enough number to be a concern. In fact, most people report gaining muscle: I did myself while on this diet: increasing my muscle mass >2% in 5 weeks. You are quite literally consuming your body fat to put on lean tissue. 

A loose, but appropriate comparison here is to intermittent fasting. Many of the disciples of intermittent fasting herald it for its body recomposition and lean tissue building properties. Ketogenic diets lend themselves well to pairing with intermittent fasting

You risk dangerously elevated cholesterol levels, obesity and possibly diabetes from a diet so high in fat.

This is only true if you were to eat a high fat diet, but also kept up a high carbohydrate intake. Dr Rhonda Patrick very succinctly explained this on a recent appearance on the Joe Rogan Experience Podcast. Essentially, chronic inflammation from a poor diet high in carbohydrates, mixed with high fat foods is an equation that equals cell damage.  Cell damage often ends in illness or disease.

Bottom Line

If healthy and able to do so, using a ketogenic diet for a weight cut is very effective, as you will likely lose weight if you have weight to lose (if you're above 15% body fat as a male, you will likely be very successful). It is a "weight cut" for competition in the truest sense of the word: once you break the ketogenic nutrition program, you do tend to gain weight on the scale. This can be mitigated through a proper transitional diet, but it's important to remember that this is probably not a state you should be staying in long term. It makes sense to bring yourself  out of it. Always do this under the supervision of a professional or physician if in doubt with regards to its safety to your health.

If you're looking to cut weight for an important competition or event, I invite you to check out my Weight Cut Coaching services, or to contact me if you ever have any questions. 

 

Other useful links not already linked in this blog:

Ketosis and Athletic Performance: More Than Fat Loss (Four Hour Workweek Blog)

Cyclical Ketogenic Diet: The Best Ever Bodybuilding Diet?

 

Have you ever used a diet like this to make weight for same-day weigh ins? Let me know by commenting below or sending me a message. I'd love to hear your experience.

Next time, we'll discuss Same Day Weigh-In Cuts using a different method of dieting. Check back soon!

- Mark